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Welcome to this installment of EE Classroom on 5G Synchronization!

For 5G, timing may not be exactly everything, but it is a big thing. As build-out continues network operations must address a variety of challenges including successful spectrum management, preparation of transport and synchronization architectures, and reliance on existing and next-gen GNSS receivers – and solutions to their potential outages. High-reliability timing products become even more critical when you factor in the phase time demands of Time Division Duplex (TDD) and the need for high accuracy within a few hundred nanoseconds.

In this classroom, we present several tutorials on the test and measurement techniques associated with oscillators, and other timing products. Need a bit of a refresher or an intro to quartz crystals, oscillators, resonators, and RTCs? We’ve got that, too, as well as a check list of the critical parameters of a clock. After making your way through those tutorials, check out our sponsors various documents addressing solutions to 5G synchronization challenges.

Aimee Kalnoskas

Senior Editor, EE World Online

5G Synchronization

Training Center Classroom

5G Synchronization Classroom Sponsored by

Test & Measurement   •  PLL 

Understanding and measuring optoelectronic oscillators

Demanding applications require oscillators having high spectral purity, which can only be achieved by implementing optical components.

The ups and downs of oscillators in test equipment

To support oscillations, the phase shift caused by the amplifier and feedback network must be zero. This criterion is unfulfilled at all but one frequency.

Basics of LC oscillators and their measurement

The amount of capacitance and inductance of capacitors and inductors determine both the resonant frequency and the sharpness of the response curve (known as Q).

What is Phase Locked Loop (PLL)?

PLLs use a negative feedback circuit to match the phase of the frequency of another signal and synchronize the phase of the PLL’s output to the input signal’s frequency.

Related Resources

5G Timing Solutions

Protect Phase for 5G Mobile Networks

Precision Frequency Control

and Timing Solutions

Complete Timing and Synchronization

Solutions for 5G

Clocks   •  Oscillators

Quartz crystals and oscillators: Crystal basics

A look at the quartz-crystal blank itself, and some of the subtleties and variabilities the crystal can undergo.

Quartz crystals and oscillators: Advanced crystals

The achievable performance of crystals and oscillators, the factors that affect it, and what can be done for highest performance.

What's the difference between RTC and clocks

Regular intervals need to have a regular cadence for an MCU to be predictable, so MCUs have at least one clock to keep timing going at a regular pace,

What is a clock and what are its critical parameters? 

Behind this simple-sounding, commonplace word, "clocks", there is an array of complexity and subtlety in definition, performance, and design

5G   •   Timing   •   GPS

Basics of GPS receivers

By calculating its distance from four or more satellites, a GPS receiver can find out its position in latitude and longitude anywhere on earth.

GSMA embedded SIM for IoT

Embedded SIM is supposed to be used in IoT devices that will be using 5G networks, mainly for machine-to-machine communication

How crystal oscillators and resonators work

A quartz crystal oscillator is the inverse piezo electric effect or when an electric field is applied across certain materials they start producing mechanical deformation.

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