AC/DC and DC/DC power supplies are normally relatively rugged in normal operation. Nonetheless, there are some protection features built into most of these units to ensure that they do not “self-destruct” or damage associated circuitry – primarily their loads – in the event of a failure or out-of-spec operational mode. (note: in strict terms, a […]
The term “buffer” has many definitions in electronics hardware and software. It can be a reserved software area where data is temporarily stored until it is processes; a set of internal IC registers where data is queued before being transmitted or after it has been received; or it can be a circuit function interposed to […]
Part 1 of this FAQ looked at the basics of thermocouples, where and why they are used, and some basic implementation issues; this part explores interface issues, cold junction compensation, and linearization. What are the requirements on thermocouple interface electronics? The thermocouple voltage is relatively small, so long leads between the thermocouple and the electronic front-end […]
The post Making sense of thermocouples and interfaces (part 2) appeared first on Analog IC Tips.
Temperature is the most frequently measured real-world variables, and despite its age, the thermocouples are still among the most-used temperature sensors. They are used in test and measurement equipment, instrumentation, and even in standard home ovens due to their low cost, reliability, simplicity, and ability to measure into the hundreds of degrees. What is a […]
The post Making sense of thermocouples and interfaces (Part 1) appeared first on Analog IC Tips.
As the use of LEDs for area lighting has grown dramatically, with both the use of LED-based replacement bulbs as well as LED-based fixtures for new construction (called luminaires in the trade), the issue of dimming these LEDs becomes more critical. LEDs require a very different technique for dimming than the conventional legacy incandescent bulb. […]
LEDs – light-emitting diodes – have largely supplanted other sources of light in many applications. They are used in applications ranging from small on/off power indicators, to small and large alphanumeric displays, to screen backlighting, and even for area and street illumination. It’s well known that LEDs are far more efficient than venerable incandescent lighting, […]
It’s a very common challenge in circuits to need to convert an available DC source to a lower or higher voltage. For the high-to-low conversion, one option to use a low dropout regulator (LDO), but how to easily transform a lower voltage into a higher one? For AC voltages, the answer is well-known: use a […]
The “clock” function is a standard part of nearly every electronic system, with very few exceptions. Behind this simple-sounding, commonplace word, there is an array of complexity and subtlety in definition, performance, and design. Clocks are both vital and ubiquitous, so it is worth understanding the different functions they fulfill, they ways they can be […]
The post What is a clock and what are its critical parameters (Part 1)? appeared first on Analog IC Tips.
We have already looked briefly at Earth ground (if any), chassis ground, and commons (often misnamed as “grounds”). These do not exist as unrelated connections in a system. The issues related to connecting commons and ground is the subject of countless articles, academic papers, vendor application notes, anecdotes, and even books. There are many rules […]
The post How should grounds and commons be connected to each other? appeared first on Analog IC Tips.
The term “ground” is one of the most frequently used words in electronics, and it’s also one of its most-often misused and misunderstood terms. Fortunately, in many cases of misuse, the engineers using it know what it actually being referred to, and are able to translate it internally and so avoid negative consequences. However, there […]
The post What are the different “grounds” in electronic design? appeared first on Analog IC Tips.