LEDs – light-emitting diodes – have largely supplanted other sources of light in many applications. They are used in applications ranging from small on/off power indicators, to small and large alphanumeric displays, to screen backlighting, and even for area and street illumination. It’s well known that LEDs are far more efficient than venerable incandescent lighting, […]
It’s a very common challenge in circuits to need to convert an available DC source to a lower or higher voltage. For the high-to-low conversion, one option to use a low dropout regulator (LDO), but how to easily transform a lower voltage into a higher one? For AC voltages, the answer is well-known: use a […]
The “clock” function is a standard part of nearly every electronic system, with very few exceptions. Behind this simple-sounding, commonplace word, there is an array of complexity and subtlety in definition, performance, and design. Clocks are both vital and ubiquitous, so it is worth understanding the different functions they fulfill, they ways they can be […]
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We have already looked briefly at Earth ground (if any), chassis ground, and commons (often misnamed as “grounds”). These do not exist as unrelated connections in a system. The issues related to connecting commons and ground is the subject of countless articles, academic papers, vendor application notes, anecdotes, and even books. There are many rules […]
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The term “ground” is one of the most frequently used words in electronics, and it’s also one of its most-often misused and misunderstood terms. Fortunately, in many cases of misuse, the engineers using it know what it actually being referred to, and are able to translate it internally and so avoid negative consequences. However, there […]
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The operation amplifier – commonly called the op amp – is the key building block of analog circuits. In its basic configuration, it is most often used to amplify a signal, of course. It can also be configured to perform mathematical operations such as implementing multiplication or division of two signals, take a square root, […]
In Part 1, we looked at Class A, B, AB, C, and D amplifiers. These designations are standardized, fully defined, and widely recognized. Now we’ll look at a few other topologies which are less well known but also used. The Class G amplifier is similar to the Class AB amplifier except that is uses two […]
Despite the contention that “everything is going digital,” amplifiers of analog signals have always been and continue to be important and unavoidable functions in real circuits and systems. Yet amplifiers which must produce significant output power from audio to RF face challenges of performance and efficiency. The industry has some long-established designations for classes of […]
Amplifiers which must produce significant output power face challenges of performance and efficiency. The industry has some long-established designations for classes of amplifiers as well as some relatively new classes. First a look at the older but still widely used classes commonly known as A, B, AB, C, and D. The Class A amplifier provides […]
Closed-loop control is the foundation of our modern automated world. In simplest terms, this approach applies negative feedback to a system to achieve a desired result. Consider the control of temperature, the most widely measured and controlled real-world physical parameter. If the measured value of this process variable is above the desired setpoint value, we […]
The post What is Proportional (PID) Control and why is it used? (Part 1) appeared first on Analog IC Tips.