You may or may not have thought about group delays in your electronics signal processing chain, but it is almost certainly there. It may not matter that it is there, but you need to be aware just in case. One way in which it might affect you is if you are sampling a signal. The […]
Amplifiers which must produce significant output power face challenges of performance and efficiency. The industry has some long-established designations for classes of amplifiers as well as some relatively new classes. First a look at the older but still widely used classes commonly known as A, B, AB, C, and D. The Class A amplifier provides […]
Closed-loop control is the foundation of our modern automated world. In simplest terms, this approach applies negative feedback to a system to achieve a desired result. Consider the control of temperature, the most widely measured and controlled real-world physical parameter. If the measured value of this process variable is above the desired setpoint value, we […]
The post What is Proportional (PID) Control and why is it used? (Part 1) appeared first on Analog IC Tips.
A serial bus can be more efficient than the traditional parallel bus. But there are challenges in representing and making sense of the serial data flow in the context of clock timing. These difficulties can be resolved by using the multi-channel capabilities of advanced oscilloscopes such as the Tektronix Series 3000 instruments. The key to […]
The post Analyzing the Serial Peripheral Interface (SPI) bus appeared first on Test & Measurement Tips.
Back in olden days, parallel buses were used to link electronic building blocks. Today serial buses have largely replaced them. There are numerous components for many applications that have standard serial interfaces, and this trend makes serial technology a good choice for design engineers. Because there are fewer signal lines, serial bus electronics take up […]
by Anil Pandey, Principal R&D Engineer, Keysight Technologies and EDAboard.com forum member Electrostatic discharge(ESD) is the sudden and momentary electric current that flows between two objects at different electrical potentials caused by direct contact or induced by an electrostatic field. An Electrostatic Discharge (ESD) strike is a constant threat to device reliability and functionality. Many low-voltage core […]
A digital potentiometer (or “digipot”) operates like a traditional mechanical potentiometer (pot), which is a variable resistor, except the digipot is an integrated chip (IC) that accepts signal input rather than the physical movement of a shaft or slide for adjustment. Essentially, both types of potentiometer are analog devices that provide variable resistance. However, a […]
I2C stands for “Inter-integrated circuit,” or “inter-IC,” and is a simple, 8-bit, serial communication bus protocol that uses just two bus wires; a serial data wire (SDA) and a serial clock wire (SCL). I2C is integrated into many ICs and allows devices to communicate directly with each other, avoiding CPU cycles. I2C operates on a […]
Temperature is a parameter that often needs measuring. It may be within an enclosure, on a PCB, remotely or even “wirelessly”. Wireless, in this case, does not necessarily mean a remote sensor communicating using radio frequencies, it can mean a pyroelectric sensor. Pyroelectric sensors are very long wavelength detectors which measure radiation in the 6-15μm […]
Because our work depends so much on the technologies we utilize, one of our year-end reviews covers a post-mortem summary of all failures related to our equipment use. The summary includes system failures, which are thankfully rare, and also encompasses use-model failures such as our discovery that the RF data-link receivers we use on location […]