During the first decade of this century, advances in several disparate technologies set the stage for a substantial rise in autonomous and semi-autonomous remote intelligent-node deployments that continues to this day. This trend arose in applications as different as hydrological surveying, transportation tracking and management, and machine health. It also has kicked off a flurry […]
The term “ground” is one of the most frequently used words in electronics, and it’s also one of its most-often misused and misunderstood terms. Fortunately, in many cases of misuse, the engineers using it know what it actually being referred to, and are able to translate it internally and so avoid negative consequences. However, there […]
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If you are out of Analog Inputs (AIs) on your MCU, or do not have any AIs at all, it’s possible to rig together a way to read analog signals that use varying resistance levels, even if you only have digital inputs (DIs). As an example, let’s assume that the varying resistance device is a […]
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Unlike high-volume consumer and automotive applications that demand consumer-level pricing, machine vision applications in manufacturing are not nearly as large. However, these applications require performance and precision and take advantage of the developments and advances in image sensing for the larger markets. Two technologies provide the vision sensing capability for image capturing: charge-coupled device (CCD) […]
A number of systems I have developed have required the processing of pulsed analog signals. Depending on the system, one or more attributes of the signal needed to be preserved and measured such as pulse height, pulse width, pulse shape and pulse position in time. Also, you usually need some gain to boost the signal […]
The operation amplifier – commonly called the op amp – is the key building block of analog circuits. In its basic configuration, it is most often used to amplify a signal, of course. It can also be configured to perform mathematical operations such as implementing multiplication or division of two signals, take a square root, […]
Eye diagrams are a quick, visual means to quickly identify whether there are any signal integrity issues before moving on to more refined analysis. Eye diagrams help with the effective analysis of serial data, and offer both qualitative and quantitative insight regarding the data communications signal path itself and what might be affecting signal integrity. […]
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In Part 1, we looked at Class A, B, AB, C, and D amplifiers. These designations are standardized, fully defined, and widely recognized. Now we’ll look at a few other topologies which are less well known but also used. The Class G amplifier is similar to the Class AB amplifier except that is uses two […]
When you first start out after graduating from college with a B.S. in electrical engineering, you have a bright, shiny new degree that might not be exactly what you expected. You had to take a series of fundamental courses in math and science for the first year or two. The third year is spent learning […]
Despite the contention that “everything is going digital,” amplifiers of analog signals have always been and continue to be important and unavoidable functions in real circuits and systems. Yet amplifiers which must produce significant output power from audio to RF face challenges of performance and efficiency. The industry has some long-established designations for classes of […]