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Medical Electronics

Training Center Classroom

Welcome to this installment of EE Classroom on Medical Electronics

Recent advances in medical devices and medical electronics have catapulted this field of engineering that helps solve medical and health-related problems using electronics into the forefront of daily lives. From the humble stethoscope of 100 years ago to the complex image processing of today's X-ray machines to the wearable fitness and implantable medical devices of today, medical electronics has a significant impact on individuals and society overall. And the expectations of what may be available in the future present formidable design challenges to the engineer.

Perhaps more than many other fields, medical electronics represents an application area where analog meets digital and where the demand for accurate and smaller and smaller modules are required to build less obtrusive medical devices. To that end, this classroom offers fundamental articles on analog-to-digital converters, as well as key factors to consider when choosing the PCB materials that are so critical to packaging. Two FAQ articles not only present the fascinating history of magnetic resonance imaging but delve into the physics and the blend of diverse technologies that have enabled it to evolve. As in other classrooms, this training center presents reference designs that provide the foundation for you to create devices — in this case, ultrasound scanners, CPAP machines, ECGs, and wearable fitness and activity monitors.

So, yes…Learn More.

Aimee Kalnoskas

Editor in Chief, EE World Online


Analog-to-Digital Converters   •   PCB Materials

Choosing PCB materials to optimize applications, Part 2

Sigma Delta ADC
vs SAR vs Pipeline

Practical points for ADCs

Choosing PCB materials to optimize applications, Part 1

The variety of families of ADCs each have their strengths and weaknesses that must be considered from an application perspective.

The next step after familiarizing yourself with the fundamentals of an ADC is to know your entire signal chain well.

Have you ever wondered which type of PCB materials would be worth investing in to improve signal integrity?

From rugged construction for harsh environments to flexibility for wearables — PCB materials matter.


Battery Charging   •   MRI   •   Pulse Oximetry

Battery self-discharge and designing for long life

Blood oxygen meters: background and fundamentals

MRI: Development — and lawsuits

MRI: How it works

Battery chemistries each have special qualities that can make certain cells impractical for varying IoT apps.

An explanation of the basic operating principles of magnetic resonance imaging.

A look at the physics and other advances that led to the MRI as we know it.

It is now trivial and non-invasive to measure blood-oxygen saturation SpO2, thanks to LEDs, algorithms, and ICs for pulse oximetry.

Ultrasound   •    Microcontroller Projects 

LM35 temperature sensor working principles

Ultrasound imaging

That "what is" behind ultrasound imaging, how is it created, and how it works.

Steps and tutorial showing how to easily interface LM35 temperature sensor with MCUs.

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