Basics   •   Applications   •   Reference Designs   •   Projects

Welcome to this installment of EE Classroom on Medical Electronics

Recent advances in medical devices and medical electronics have catapulted this field of engineering that helps solve medical and health-related problems using electronics into the forefront of daily lives. From the humble stethoscope of 100 years ago to the complex image processing of today's X-ray machines to the wearable fitness and implantable medical devices of today, medical electronics has a significant impact on individuals and society overall. And the expectations of what may be available in the future present formidable design challenges to the engineer.

Perhaps more than many other fields, medical electronics represents an application area where analog meets digital and where the demand for accurate and smaller and smaller modules are required to build less obtrusive medical devices. To that end, this classroom offers fundamental articles on analog-to-digital converters, as well as key factors to consider when choosing the PCB materials that are so critical to packaging. Two FAQ articles not only present the fascinating history of magnetic resonance imaging but delve into the physics and the blend of diverse technologies that have enabled it to evolve. As in other classrooms, this training center presents reference designs that provide the foundation for you to create devices — in this case, ultrasound scanners, CPAP machines, ECGs, and wearable fitness and activity monitors.

So, yes…Learn More.

Aimee Kalnoskas

Senior Editor, EE World Online

Medical Electronics

Training Center Classroom

Medical Classroom Sponsored by


Analog-to-Digital Converters   •   PCB Materials

Practical points for ADCs

The variety of families of ADCs each have their strengths and weaknesses that must be considered from an application perspective.

Sigma Delta ADC
vs SAR vs Pipeline

The next step after familiarizing yourself with the fundamentals of an ADC is to know your entire signal chain well.

Choosing PCB materials to optimize applications, Part 1

From rugged construction for harsh environments to flexibility for wearables — PCB materials matter.

Choosing PCB materials to optimize applications, Part 2

Have you ever wondered which type of PCB materials would be worth investing in to improve signal integrity?

Ultrasound Scanner

Featured Reference Designs

CPAP Machine

Electrocardiogram (ECG)

Wearable Fitness & Activity Monitor


Battery self-discharge and designing for long life

Battery chemistries each have special qualities that can make certain cells impractical for varying IoT apps.

Battery Charging   •   MRI   •   Pulse Oximetry

It is now trivial and non-invasive to measure blood-oxygen saturation SpO2, thanks to LEDs, algorithms, and ICs for pulse oximetry.

Blood oxygen meters: background and fundamentals

MRI: How it works

An explanation of the basic operating principles of magnetic resonance imaging.

MRI: Development — and lawsuits

A look at the physics and other advances that led to the MRI as we know it.

Ultrasound imaging

That "what is" behind ultrasound imaging, how is it created, and how it works.

LM35 temperature sensor working principles

Steps and tutorial showing how to easily interface LM35 temperature sensor with MCUs.

Ultrasound   •    Microcontroller Projects 

TI semiconductor technologies and people are changing the world. TI engineers, manufacture, test and sell analog and embedded semiconductor chips – key ingredients in things you experience every day. From connected cars to intelligent homes; from self-monitoring health devices to automated factories, TI technologies add intelligence to electronic systems – making them safer, smarter, more connected and more efficient.