“Passives” in general within the electronics community are devices that do not drive or transmit power or signals. Passives do not control electricity directly and do not require external power sources to accomplish control of an electrical signal. Examples of passive components are resistors (R), capacitors (C), inductors (L), transformers, antennas, potentiometers (variable resistors), diodes […]
Mutual inductance is superbly demonstrated in a transformer. Transformers are made up of two wire coils placed close each other such that current running in one coil can induce a voltage in the other coil without the coils touching. Power can be transferred without a metal connection with a transformer, and transformers can be […]
The post Mutual inductance & transformers: when EMF becomes EMI appeared first on Analog IC Tips.
A phase-lock(ed) loop (PLL) is a fundamental building block in wireless, radio frequency (RF), and telecommunication technologies. PLLs use a negative feedback circuit to match the phase of the frequency of another signal. PLLs synchronize the phase of the PLL’s output to the input signal’s frequency by tweaking the output of a voltage-driven oscillator; the […]
Digital signals have two positions: on or off, interpreted in shorthand as 1 or 0. Analog signals, on the other hand, can be on, off, half-way, two-thirds the way to on, and an infinite number of positions between 0 and 1 either approaching 1 or descending down to zero. The two are handled very differently […]
Current can flow in two different ways with respect to the load. Sensors often provide real-world, analog input for embedded applications. MCUs rely on sensors to be their electronic “senses” and actuators to physically interact with world. Interfacing with external devices requires some planning on the part of the designer to ensure efficient operation. One […]
Operational amplifiers are used in many configurations and with many variations on specifications, depending upon the application. However, an IC package of operational amplifiers will often come with several in a package (e.g., a “quad pack” will have four op amps). If you have leftover, unused op amps on the same chip, the unused ones […]
Analog circuits are exposed to outside influences most often through input channels by way of op amps acting as filters, buffers, or amplifiers. Electrostatic discharge (ESD) results from the direct contact of two things that are at different voltage potential levels and can also be defined as a fast, high current transfer. Analog circuit exposure […]
The post Electrostatic discharge and analog circuits: Preventing the undetectable disaster appeared first on Analog IC Tips.
In the embedded hardware world, the term CODEC stands for COder/DECoder and is basically an analog-to-digital converter (ADC) and a digital-to-analog converter (DAC) in one package. A codec, whether hardware or emulated in software, converts analog audio signals into digital signals for transmission or encodes them for storage in a digital format. Later, the decoder […]
Any unwanted signal that’s combined with the desired signal is called noise. In any circuit, noise can come from anywhere; from external systems as well as from the within a circuit itself. External sources include a number of sources such as power lines, RF transmitters, nearby conductors, ignition systems, or motors that turn on and […]
Professor Leon Chua of the Electrical Engineering Department of UC Berkeley coined the term memristor while working on mathematical models in electrical engineering. He noted that resistors relate voltage to current (R=V/I), capacitors relate charge to voltage (C = Q/V), and inductors relate magnetic flux to current (L= Φ/I). What seemed to be missing was a […]
The post Memristors, the fourth fundamental circuit element appeared first on Analog IC Tips.