Differential signaling is used in many communication schemes including HDMI, USB, DVI, CAN, LVDS, and more. Differential signaling uses two wires and therefore two signals accomplish transmitting a series of bits from one point to another. In the figure below, the first image demonstrates single-ended signaling, which uses a single wire and pulses 0s […]
Any unwanted signal that’s combined with the desired signal is called noise. In any circuit, noise can come from anywhere; from external systems as well as from the within a circuit itself. External sources include a number of sources such as power lines, RF transmitters, nearby conductors, ignition systems, or motors that turn on and […]
Since the first application of the wheel, an element of all practical engineering projects has been the make-or-buy decision. The issue is fractal, arising at every level of the design hierarchy: For any given function, at some level of abstraction, you’ll choose to switch between make and buy. But the decision doesn’t hinge on a […]
Professor Leon Chua of the Electrical Engineering Department of UC Berkeley coined the term memristor while working on mathematical models in electrical engineering. He noted that resistors relate voltage to current (R=V/I), capacitors relate charge to voltage (C = Q/V), and inductors relate magnetic flux to current (L= Φ/I). What seemed to be missing was a […]
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A Virtual Machine (VM) is a machine that runs on another machine. Virtual machines can be used to run several different operating systems on the same computer hardware. For example, a computer (“machine”) running Linux can have a VM installed on it that is running Windows and for all intents and purposes, the Windows machine […]
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SPI is a simple serial communication interface that was originally developed by Motorola in the 1980s for use over short distances of a few feet.[i] SPI can move up to several Mbps, is flexible enough to stream raw data in full duplex with little overhead, and is pretty flexible to work with. SPI supports standard […]
The post Need more GPIO on your MCU? Try the Serial Peripheral Interface (SPI) appeared first on Microcontroller Tips.
You may or may not have thought about group delays in your electronics signal processing chain, but it is almost certainly there. It may not matter that it is there, but you need to be aware just in case. One way in which it might affect you is if you are sampling a signal. The […]
Amplifiers which must produce significant output power face challenges of performance and efficiency. The industry has some long-established designations for classes of amplifiers as well as some relatively new classes. First a look at the older but still widely used classes commonly known as A, B, AB, C, and D. The Class A amplifier provides […]
Closed-loop control is the foundation of our modern automated world. In simplest terms, this approach applies negative feedback to a system to achieve a desired result. Consider the control of temperature, the most widely measured and controlled real-world physical parameter. If the measured value of this process variable is above the desired setpoint value, we […]
The post What is Proportional (PID) Control and why is it used? (Part 1) appeared first on Analog IC Tips.
A serial bus can be more efficient than the traditional parallel bus. But there are challenges in representing and making sense of the serial data flow in the context of clock timing. These difficulties can be resolved by using the multi-channel capabilities of advanced oscilloscopes such as the Tektronix Series 3000 instruments. The key to […]
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